L'edificio della Biblioteca Nazionale del Kosovo a Pristina dell'architetto e teorico croato Andrija Mutnjaković è stato concepito nel 1971 e il suo progetto si basa su principi compositivi che riflettono tendenze e movimenti culturali attivi in Jugoslavia negli anni '60 e '70 che hanno avuto intensi legami e rapporti con il dibattito europeo e internazionale di quegli anni quali: la “Neoavanguardia nelle arti visive” di Zagabria, “Biourbanismo” e quelle correnti ascrivibili alle “Megastructures” del libro di Reyner Banham. In primo luogo, la Biblioteca Nazionale del Kosovo è stata valutata come “Espressione artistica della neoavanguardia”. Bisogna ricordare che lo stesso Mutnjaković è stato partecipe della cultura della “Neoavanguarde” nelle arti visive di Zagabria tra la fine degli anni ’50 e l’inizio degli anni ’70 e i suoi primi lavori riflettono direttamente i principi compositivi propri di questa cultura come i progetti per Novi Beograd (Biocity for Belgrade, New Belgrade, 1965), Tel Aviv (Tel Aviv, City Center 1963), Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh City Center, 1964). La serie di schizzi di studio per la Biblioteca procede definendo l’impianto e il profilo dell’edificio adottando diversi principi della “neoavanguardia” nelle arti visive, più precisamente “Enformel“ e “Nuove Tendenze“: la forma aperta in continua evoluzione attraverso lo sviluppo automatico (informatico) delle “trame geometriche informali”. In secondo luogo, la Biblioteca Nazionale del Kosovo come “centro biourbanistico” o “megastruttura”, progetto del campus universitario - non realizzato – di cui l’unico oggetto costruito è la biblioteca, segue chiaramente il principio del “Biourbanismo”, altra opera teorica di Andrija Mutnjaković (1982). Il campus è modellato secondo un disegno “naturale” a crescita aperta e spontanea. L’ideale “biourbanista” era che la società raggiungesse un equilibrio dinamico come si vede nella natura incontaminata. La struttura urbana è presentata come un aggregato di relazioni tra tutti gli elementi che la definiscono all’interno di specifiche circostanze socioeconomiche. Mutnjaković si propone di creare la città come un organismo di spazi reciprocamente “interconnessi” con una libera composizione integrata organicamente nel paesaggio, costituita da “unità urbane bio-logiche”. Con i movimenti d’avanguardia degli anni ‘60, il concetto di megastruttura è stata proposto e praticato principalmente in ambito accademico dove Banham ha tuttavia identificato alcuni progetti “megastrutturali”, costituiti da edifici modulari interconnessi e ambienti orientati alla quasi esclusiva circolazione pedonale. Riferendosi a questa materia, nell’ambito dei progetti biourbanistici di Mutnjaković, l’intero masterplan del campus diviene una “megastruttura” organica della quale la Biblioteca Nazionale del Kosovo costituisce il “nucleo” nel senso biologico del termine. Nella terza parte, Biblioteca Nazionale come centro della città ideale dove Mutnjaković analizza il Palazzo Ducale di Urbino e il Palazzo di Diocleziano per capire l’idea e l’approccio alla base della loro città ideale. Il progetto della Biblioteca Nazionale come un’idea di ricerca dell’architettura regionale come base per la creazione dell’architettura contemporanea, e che attraverso l’architettura si potesse in qualche modo mostrare l’identità dell’utente e creare una forma che prima non esisteva. Un’idea della città rappresentata in un unico edificio. Palazzo a forma di città. Concentrandosi sulla Biblioteca Nazionale del Kosovo come neoavanguardia, una megastruttura, un centro biourbanistico e un centro di una città ideale, questa tesi approfondisce la conoscenza dei principi compositivi e dell'approccio autentico sviluppato da Andrija Mutnjaković in questo lavoro originale e altamente creativo.

The building of the National Library of Kosovo in Pristina by the Croatian architect and theoretician Andrija Mutnjaković was conceived in 1971 and its project is based on compositional principles that reflect cultural trends and movements active in Yugoslavia in the 60s and 70s that have had intense ties and relations with the European and international debate of those years such as: the “Neo-Avant-Garde in the visual arts” in Zagreb, “Biourbanism” and those currents ascribable to Reyner Banham’s book “Megastructure”. Firstly, the National Library of Kosovo was evaluated as a “Neo-Avant-Garde artistic expression”. It must be noted that Mutnjaković himself was a participant and observer of Neo-Avant-Garde culture in Zagreb since the end of the 1950s. His early works directly reflect the compositional principles of this culture such as the projects for Novi Beograd (Biocity for Belgrade, New Belgrade, 1965), Tel Aviv (Tel Aviv City Center 1963), Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh City Center, 1964). The series of study sketches for the Library proceeds by defining the layout and profile of the building by adopting different principles of the “Neo-Avant-Garde”, more precisely the Enformel and New Tendencies within the context of visual arts: the open form in continuous evolution through the automatic (computer) development of “informal geometric textures”. Secondly, the National Library of Kosovo is analysed as a “biourbanistic center” or a “megastructure”: the unrealized project of the university campus - of which the only built object is the library, clearly follows the principle of “Biourbanism”, a theoretical work by Andrija Mutnjaković (1982). The campus is modeled according to a “natural” design with a tendency toward openness and spontaneous growth. The “biourbanist” ideal is present in the aspiration for a dynamic equilibrium between society and untouched nature. The urban structure is presented as an aggregate of relationships between all the elements that define the specific socio-economic circumstances. Mutnjaković aims to create the campus as a city – an organism of mutually “interconnected” spaces with a free composition organically integrated into the landscape, consisting of “biological urban units”. With the avant-garde movements of the 1960s, the concept of megastructure was proposed and practiced mainly in the academic field where Banham has nevertheless identified some projects as the expression of a “megastructural” idea, consisting of interconnected modular buildings and environments oriented towards almost exclusive pedestrian traffic. Referring to this matter, as part of Mutnjaković’s biourbanist projects, the entire master plan of the university campus in Pristina is an organic “megastructure” with the National Library of Kosovo as its “nucleus” in the biological sense of the term. Thirdly, the National Library as the center of the ideal city where Mutnjaković analyzes the Ducal Palace of Urbino and the Diocletian’s Palace to furtherly understand the idea and approach behind their ideal city. The National Library project acts as a research idea of regional architecture as a basis for the creation of contemporary architecture, and that through architecture one could somehow show the user’s identity and create a previously nonexistent form. An idea of the city represented in a single building; a palace in the form of a city. Concentrating on the National Library of Kosovo as Neo-Avant-Garde, a megastructure, a biourbanistic center, and a center of an ideal city, this thesis deepens the knowledge of the compositional principles and the authentic approach developed by Andrija Mutnjaković in this internationally often neglected but original and highly creative seminal Yugoslav work.

Between Neo-Avant-Garde Art and Biourbanism. Andrija Mutnjaković: National Library of Kosovo / Cocaj, Rilind. - (2022 Jul 21).

Between Neo-Avant-Garde Art and Biourbanism. Andrija Mutnjaković: National Library of Kosovo

COCAJ, RILIND
2022-07-21T00:00:00+02:00

Abstract

The building of the National Library of Kosovo in Pristina by the Croatian architect and theoretician Andrija Mutnjaković was conceived in 1971 and its project is based on compositional principles that reflect cultural trends and movements active in Yugoslavia in the 60s and 70s that have had intense ties and relations with the European and international debate of those years such as: the “Neo-Avant-Garde in the visual arts” in Zagreb, “Biourbanism” and those currents ascribable to Reyner Banham’s book “Megastructure”. Firstly, the National Library of Kosovo was evaluated as a “Neo-Avant-Garde artistic expression”. It must be noted that Mutnjaković himself was a participant and observer of Neo-Avant-Garde culture in Zagreb since the end of the 1950s. His early works directly reflect the compositional principles of this culture such as the projects for Novi Beograd (Biocity for Belgrade, New Belgrade, 1965), Tel Aviv (Tel Aviv City Center 1963), Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh City Center, 1964). The series of study sketches for the Library proceeds by defining the layout and profile of the building by adopting different principles of the “Neo-Avant-Garde”, more precisely the Enformel and New Tendencies within the context of visual arts: the open form in continuous evolution through the automatic (computer) development of “informal geometric textures”. Secondly, the National Library of Kosovo is analysed as a “biourbanistic center” or a “megastructure”: the unrealized project of the university campus - of which the only built object is the library, clearly follows the principle of “Biourbanism”, a theoretical work by Andrija Mutnjaković (1982). The campus is modeled according to a “natural” design with a tendency toward openness and spontaneous growth. The “biourbanist” ideal is present in the aspiration for a dynamic equilibrium between society and untouched nature. The urban structure is presented as an aggregate of relationships between all the elements that define the specific socio-economic circumstances. Mutnjaković aims to create the campus as a city – an organism of mutually “interconnected” spaces with a free composition organically integrated into the landscape, consisting of “biological urban units”. With the avant-garde movements of the 1960s, the concept of megastructure was proposed and practiced mainly in the academic field where Banham has nevertheless identified some projects as the expression of a “megastructural” idea, consisting of interconnected modular buildings and environments oriented towards almost exclusive pedestrian traffic. Referring to this matter, as part of Mutnjaković’s biourbanist projects, the entire master plan of the university campus in Pristina is an organic “megastructure” with the National Library of Kosovo as its “nucleus” in the biological sense of the term. Thirdly, the National Library as the center of the ideal city where Mutnjaković analyzes the Ducal Palace of Urbino and the Diocletian’s Palace to furtherly understand the idea and approach behind their ideal city. The National Library project acts as a research idea of regional architecture as a basis for the creation of contemporary architecture, and that through architecture one could somehow show the user’s identity and create a previously nonexistent form. An idea of the city represented in a single building; a palace in the form of a city. Concentrating on the National Library of Kosovo as Neo-Avant-Garde, a megastructure, a biourbanistic center, and a center of an ideal city, this thesis deepens the knowledge of the compositional principles and the authentic approach developed by Andrija Mutnjaković in this internationally often neglected but original and highly creative seminal Yugoslav work.
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Between Neo-Avant-Garde Art and Biourbanism. Andrija Mutnjaković: National Library of Kosovo / Cocaj, Rilind. - (2022 Jul 21).
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11578/317988
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