Contemporary Paraguayan architecture attracted international interest for the ability of some of its authors to showcase how cultural peripheries can be places where to reinvent the principles of modernity. The specific condition of Paraguay, on the margins of the American periphery, highlights the continuity of America's problems as a continent of shared identity, but also the particular circumstances of each individual province or nation being the center of a precise system of cultural relations. Architecture and urban planning became the concretization of the processes of translation of different cultural systems that crossed this territories, fostering the idea of ​a heterogeneous American culture, given by the continuity with which over time designs belonging to other worlds have passed in an exogenous phenomena. America is heterogeneous, due to the complex crucible produced by various forms of cultural dependences; Paraguay's capital, Asunción, where the objects of this research are located, is the geographic support to begin the definition of a system of precise relationships that have given sense to the designs. To understand the designs it was important to enter the ambiguous territory where it is located, Asunción, aware that there can not be a Paraguayan identity without a relation to other cultures. The continuing political-economic crises force an ethnic-cultural promiscuity among European immigrants and indigenous peoples. Language coexistence becomes the symbol of the conquest of indigenous people, but also of a particular alliance that manifests in the forms of urban dwelling the permanence of a rural condition. The research focuses on four projects by architect Javier Corvalàn: the Experimental Theater of the Cultural Center "Manzana de la Rivera" (1994-1996), the restoration of the Cultural Center "CPES" (1996-2000), the Surubi'i House (2004-2005) and the Chapel of San Miguel Arcángel (2002-2011). The aim of this analysis is to give greater weight to Paraguay and to an experience where many authors are involved in the definition of the design process, while being also closely related to the geographic support. Forms of synthesis investigates the ability of Corvalán's project to positively relate within this heterogeneous culture. The research, by recalling the history of those four architectures, defines the set of relationships that the architect identifies and then organizes throughout the project. The culture of Paraguay, that is brought to light trough the design, has always been ambiguous, due to the fact that is open to different interpretations, and impure because it includes heterogeneous elements. Projects reveal a natural way of being heterogeneous, through which both urban and rural conditions simultaneously work in defining the anthropic space.  Corvalán’s works stretch themselves among the issues posed by the specific context of each single project, beginning a process that looks for a synthesis of the possible actions. Through the example of these architectures the evolution of an attitude is discussed. This attitude, that has synthesis as its inspiration, finds in structural intuition the way for an economy of actions that is also figurative.   By relocating the sense of the actions and of the context we can highlight the affinity of each project to its natural and cultural geographies, to distinguish its architectural experiment from other Latin Americans experiences, but also avoid relapsing in folklore or modernist mannerism. Corvalán's work tells of the need of understanding the contemporary architectural design through a series of multiple relationships, which are very wide but equally precise. Paraguayan experience is rooted in an America that can be considered as the expression of a pre-global condition, the artifact is the model that is used in order to verify the means in which a local experience manifests its way of being universal.

Forme di Sintesi : l'invenzione americana nei progetti di Javier Corvalan / Ballarin, Marco. - (2017 Jun 06). [10.25432/ballarin-marco_phd2017-06-06]

Forme di Sintesi : l'invenzione americana nei progetti di Javier Corvalan

BALLARIN, MARCO
2017

Abstract

Contemporary Paraguayan architecture attracted international interest for the ability of some of its authors to showcase how cultural peripheries can be places where to reinvent the principles of modernity. The specific condition of Paraguay, on the margins of the American periphery, highlights the continuity of America's problems as a continent of shared identity, but also the particular circumstances of each individual province or nation being the center of a precise system of cultural relations. Architecture and urban planning became the concretization of the processes of translation of different cultural systems that crossed this territories, fostering the idea of ​a heterogeneous American culture, given by the continuity with which over time designs belonging to other worlds have passed in an exogenous phenomena. America is heterogeneous, due to the complex crucible produced by various forms of cultural dependences; Paraguay's capital, Asunción, where the objects of this research are located, is the geographic support to begin the definition of a system of precise relationships that have given sense to the designs. To understand the designs it was important to enter the ambiguous territory where it is located, Asunción, aware that there can not be a Paraguayan identity without a relation to other cultures. The continuing political-economic crises force an ethnic-cultural promiscuity among European immigrants and indigenous peoples. Language coexistence becomes the symbol of the conquest of indigenous people, but also of a particular alliance that manifests in the forms of urban dwelling the permanence of a rural condition. The research focuses on four projects by architect Javier Corvalàn: the Experimental Theater of the Cultural Center "Manzana de la Rivera" (1994-1996), the restoration of the Cultural Center "CPES" (1996-2000), the Surubi'i House (2004-2005) and the Chapel of San Miguel Arcángel (2002-2011). The aim of this analysis is to give greater weight to Paraguay and to an experience where many authors are involved in the definition of the design process, while being also closely related to the geographic support. Forms of synthesis investigates the ability of Corvalán's project to positively relate within this heterogeneous culture. The research, by recalling the history of those four architectures, defines the set of relationships that the architect identifies and then organizes throughout the project. The culture of Paraguay, that is brought to light trough the design, has always been ambiguous, due to the fact that is open to different interpretations, and impure because it includes heterogeneous elements. Projects reveal a natural way of being heterogeneous, through which both urban and rural conditions simultaneously work in defining the anthropic space.  Corvalán’s works stretch themselves among the issues posed by the specific context of each single project, beginning a process that looks for a synthesis of the possible actions. Through the example of these architectures the evolution of an attitude is discussed. This attitude, that has synthesis as its inspiration, finds in structural intuition the way for an economy of actions that is also figurative.   By relocating the sense of the actions and of the context we can highlight the affinity of each project to its natural and cultural geographies, to distinguish its architectural experiment from other Latin Americans experiences, but also avoid relapsing in folklore or modernist mannerism. Corvalán's work tells of the need of understanding the contemporary architectural design through a series of multiple relationships, which are very wide but equally precise. Paraguayan experience is rooted in an America that can be considered as the expression of a pre-global condition, the artifact is the model that is used in order to verify the means in which a local experience manifests its way of being universal.
En la interpretación actual algunas obras de la arquitectura contemporanea en Paraguay serian el resultado de una experimentación suscitada por el redescubrimiento de los pocos edificios modernos realizados en el País, como el Colegio Paraguay-Brasil” del maestro brasilero Affonso Eduardo Reidy, a través de una atención latinoamericana al proyecto. La calidad espacial, el interés por la estática en relación a las técnicas de construcción, y la constante búsqueda del dispositivo arquitectónico capaz de mediar las proibitivas condiciones climáticas serian el resultado de una provechosa combinación. Por un lado la lección de algunos maestros latinoamericanos, en particular de la “Escuela Paulista”, y por otro la reinvención del espacio residencial característico de un Paraguay mucho mas rural que urbano: el espacio intermedio, una superficie cubierta en continuidad con el espacio abierto alrededor de la residencia. Este concepto, si bien reiterado en la literatura con diferentes tonos, no ha permitido comprender cuales sean las condiciones históricas y culturales que han consentido su difusión. Indudable calidad y manifiesto interés son la superficie que esconde el vacío critico-narrativo de las dinámicas generantes los procesos de traducción de la tradición moderna producida y difusa en lugares tan lejanos de su lugar originario. La posibilidad de leer la obra paraguaya a través de las categorías ‘latinoamerica’ y ‘iberoamerica’ abre a la investigación un contexto interpretativo mucho mas amplio. La literatura sobre la arquitectura latinoamericana es muy amplia y varía en función del lugar y la época de su producción. Si bien esta literatura es pobre de ejemplos paraguayos, consiente de definir una idea de América, capaz de iluminar la investigación sobre el Paraguay a través de las geografías culturales que ha caracterizado su historia. Exhibiciones y publicaciones internacionales tienden a consolidar la existencia de una cultura supranacional del Centro y del Sur América en relación a un contexto cultural siempre diferente y externo a su territorio (latino, ibero, hispano, …). Esta particular condición favorece una ampliación de los horizontes históricos-culturales: la ausencia de una literatura critica especifica sobre Paraguay ha empujado la investigación hacia el análisis de las categorías interpretativas americanas para averiguar como y si hubieran podido proveer las llaves para una más profunda interpretación de la obra paraguaya. Se busca en la experiencia personal de Javier Corvalán las razones de algunos temas declinados colectivamente, si bien las propuestas criticas a su obra son muy escasas, enfocadas a una sola obra y al encanto ejercido por las figuras estructurales en relación al particular contexto material y constructivo de Paraguay. “Formas de síntesis” investiga al capacidad del arquitecto Javier Corvalán de operar positivamente en la cultura heterógena de America e Paraguay. Define a través de la historia especifica de cuatro arquitecturas el conjunto de relaciones que el arquitecto selecciona y después estructura a través del proyecto. La cultura del Paraguay que el proyecto saca a la luz es desde siempre ambigua, porque abierta a diferentes interpretaciones, impura porque impregnada de elementos heterógenos, polifónica en su imagen final. La tesis no tiene la pretensión de iniciar un trabajo monográfico sobre el arquitecto Corvalán, mas bien utiliza la dimensión local de su investigación proyectual para evidenciar el proceso de síntesis formal que dibuja una teoría compositiva valida mas allá del contexto especifico donde ha madurado. La formas de síntesis nos permiten redescubrir la invención como acción radicada en la realidad especifica, la cultura heterógena en donde se desarrolla, fruto del continuo sobreponerse de diferentes ideas de mundo, permitiéndonos reflexionar de manera diferente sobre la idea de globalización.
Forme di Sintesi : l'invenzione americana nei progetti di Javier Corvalan / Ballarin, Marco. - (2017 Jun 06). [10.25432/ballarin-marco_phd2017-06-06]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11578/278707
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