The contents of five Iron Age I-II (1200-900 BC) small ceramic vessels similar to ancient kohl pots excavated from the graves of the archaeological site of Estark-Joshaqan, near Kashan in central Iranian plateau, were characterised by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), micro X-Ray fluorescence (mu-XRF), micro-Raman spectroscopy (mu-Raman) and field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). The analytical data demonstrated that the pots were filled with powdery white laurionite (peculiar fibrous shape) and lead (hydr)oxychloride crystals to which manganese and iron oxides were added to obtain grey and orangish colours, respectively. The occurrence of minerals such as leadhillite, cerussite, anglesite, wulfenite and vanadinite together with barite, celestine, gypsum and anhydrite was ascertained via different analytical techniques and was discussed in an archaeological and technological context. In addition, the possible occurrence of mereheadite, with a fibrous habit, has been discussed. These small pots were used as kohl containers for storing cosmetics and placed in the burials as grave goods.

Make up in the grave: scientific analysis of contents of the so-called kohl pots at the archaeological site of Estark???Joshaqan, central Iranian plateau

Piovesan, Rebecca;Antonelli, Fabrizio;Maritan, Lara
2022-01-01

Abstract

The contents of five Iron Age I-II (1200-900 BC) small ceramic vessels similar to ancient kohl pots excavated from the graves of the archaeological site of Estark-Joshaqan, near Kashan in central Iranian plateau, were characterised by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), micro X-Ray fluorescence (mu-XRF), micro-Raman spectroscopy (mu-Raman) and field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). The analytical data demonstrated that the pots were filled with powdery white laurionite (peculiar fibrous shape) and lead (hydr)oxychloride crystals to which manganese and iron oxides were added to obtain grey and orangish colours, respectively. The occurrence of minerals such as leadhillite, cerussite, anglesite, wulfenite and vanadinite together with barite, celestine, gypsum and anhydrite was ascertained via different analytical techniques and was discussed in an archaeological and technological context. In addition, the possible occurrence of mereheadite, with a fibrous habit, has been discussed. These small pots were used as kohl containers for storing cosmetics and placed in the burials as grave goods.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11578/320874
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